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Gender Resources

There is a small, but growing, number of studies and reports that show a relationship between AMR and gender. This page lists the currently available resources that link gender and sex to AMR. We are looking to update this section regularly so please contact us ( with any resources you feel may be appropriate.

ReAct Report

"There is, to date, very little detailed examination of the gendered effects of antibiotic resistance, both medically and sociologically. Sex and gender is important to consider in enhancing the understanding of the ‘human face’ of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use, and how it affects a variety of people in different ways throughout their daily lives. ReAct now issues a report that explores the ways in which sex and gender interact with antibiotic resistance and makes the case for all actors engaged in addressing antibiotic resistance to undertake further work in this area."

Below is the link to a recent ReAct report detailing the significance of gender on antibiotic resistance:

WHO Guidance 

In 2018, the WHO developed guidelines that stated a need for enhanced gender focus in tackling AMR at all levels.

"Effective coverage is key to tackling AMR and the need, use and quality (efficacy) of AMR
services and initiatives are influenced in dynamic and complex ways by gender and equity issues."


From the literature

Studies looking at antibiotic prescription patters by gender/sex in primary care settings:

Self-medicating with antibiotics/antimicrobials:


Antibiotic presence in human patients: